Reuse Concept 1: DEWATS-for-Food

DEWATS-for-Food involves treating domestic wastewater and grey water in decentralised wastewater treatment systems and subsequent application as irrigation water for food production in peri-urban areas.

  1. Establishing a model for food production in low-income, peri-urban communities with the objective to

a. Provide increased supply of nutrient-rich food
b. Reduce exposure to health risks through improved awareness of preventive measures

2. Undertaking research and documentation of practical challenges associated with reuse of treated wastewater for food production in a community set-up.




Reuse Concept 2: Co-Composting of Faecal Sludge with Municipal Wet Waste

In this approach, faecal sludge from septic tanks and pits is treated in a decentralised faecal sludge treatment plant and composted with municipal organic waste to produce nutrient-rich soil conditioner.

  1. Providing holistic settlement hygiene at town and cluster level and ensuring each step under Faecal Sludge Management is a value added process across the sanitation value chain.
  2. Establishing pilot for reuse of treated excreta sludge of the entire town for agricultural purposes.
  3. Developing composted excreta sludge as a marketable product.



Nexus Concept 3: Recycled products from Urine Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs)

This approach involves at-source separation of urine, faeces and wash water in a Urine Diverting Dry Toilet. This enables immediate safe usage of (dilated) urine for crop fertigation and irrigation, while faeces can be used as agricultural soil conditioner after a sanitization period of 12 to 18 months in a closed chamber.

  1. Establishing pilot for reuse of EcoSan Products (Example: Urine, Human Manure) for production of food crops.
  2. Creating and disseminating knowledge with respect to reuse of EcoSan products.
  3. Establishing human manure as a marketable product.




Nexus concept 4: Risk Mitigation with reuse of untreated wastewater/ greywater

Risk mitigation in using untreated wastewater involves on-farm interventions like crop type restrictions, specific irrigation methods, usage of safety gear by farmers, and on-farm and local treatment measures to mitigate risks to public health.

  1. Understanding practical challenges that farmers face when using untreated wastewater/ greywater
  2. Minimising the risks associated with reuse of raw and untreated wastewater through:

a. Awareness-related activities
b. Farm-level interventions